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Assalamualaikum and happy thursday peeps ! :)

For this entry , I will not "bla .. bla.. bla.." about my life , but as you can see the picture above , my workplace communication's lecturer , MDM SITHA ask us ( me and my friends ) to share any info that we have on writing reports such as TIPS , FORMAT OF WRITING REPORT or anything .

So , I think I would like to share it in my blog ^^ I found all this tips from google . THANKS TO GOOGLE :)

Lets begin .

Firstly ,



1. Always decide what your main aims and objectives should be in writing the report before starting. If you are in doubt, go back and ask the person who requested you to do the job.

2. Keep the reader in mind: his background; level of eduction; familiarity with the subject and knowledge of any technical terms (if you need to use them).

3. Decide what information the report is going to contain and where it can be found. In order to write a good report, you must know how to find the facts you need.

4. Choose what kind of layout you will use. What will be the approximate length? What style and tone will you use? Think of your reader and then try to write in a way that he will understand.

5. Most reports have the following sections, although those marked with * can be omitted in very basic reports:
Title/title page
Circulation list
Table of Contents*
Body of Report (main section)
6. Plan the general outline of your report. Do this by making brief notes about the subject of the report and its contents. Points 1-4 which we mentioned earlier will be useful here. Write your title! It helps to focus your mind on the real subject of your report.

7. Gather the information from the sources you have chosen (books, the Internet, talking to people/experts, doing surveys etc). Then select the material that you need to use. Sometimes you collect more material than you need and you have to leave out what is not really relevant if your report is to be concise and clear.

8. Once you have gathered all your information, put it into a logical sequence. This will give you an outline of the report, and also a rough guide to its length.

9. Immediately before you begin writing you need to interpret the information you have gathered so that you can draw conclusions and make recommendations. Make sure you look at your material logically and objectively.

10. Present the report neatly making sure that you have checked: the accuracy of your facts; grammar; spelling and punctuation. Read it through two or three times to ensure that what is clear to you will be clear to your reader. Also, make sure that it looks good visually by using numbered points and plenty of white space.

If you follow these tips, you’ll not only write better reports but – who knows – you might actually start enjoying the task!

credit to : http://www.sttcourses.co.uk/EmailNews/KeyNotesPastIssues/GeneralArticles/tabid/266/selectedmoduleid/753/ArticleID/9/Default.aspx


Style & Content

· Avoid footnotes
· Write in the past tense
· Use a heading for each section
· Use subheadings for clarity
· Underscore Latin genus and species names
· Avoid long, complex sentences
· Check for excessive use of commas and conjunctions (“and”, “but”, “or”) - you can often split these sentences
· Avoid excessive use of nouns as adjectives
· Use positive statements and avoid non-committal statements (e.g. use “the data show...” rather than “the data could possibly suggest...”)
· Avoid non-informative abbreviations such as “etc.”, or “and so on”
· Reduce jargon to a minimum
· Avoid repeating facts and thoughts
· Be concise and succinct - don’t pad out your report with irrelevant data or discussion
· Above all, produce accurate, clear, and concise writing 


· This is the most difficult section to write well, so take your time
· The abstract should be a concise and exact statement of the problem addressed, the aims and objectives of the study, the procedure followed, the basic findings, and the conclusions drawn
· The abstract should not be an amplified table of contents or a shortened version of the report
· Give specific information to the reader 


· In this section state the nature of the problem, the aims and objectives of the study, and brief background information
· Include the justification and relevance of the study
· State the hypotheses you tested
· Try to answer the following questions:  why do the study?  what is the existing state of knowledge of this topic? (restrict background information to that which is pertinent to the research problem) what are the specific objectives? 

Materials and Methods

· Include a description of the procedure you used that would enable a reader to duplicate the study (i.e. repeatability)
· This will include data collection techniques, the equipment used, the experimental design, and the methods used to record, summarize, and analyze data
· Minimize descriptions of well known procedures and use references where appropriate
· Use figures to explain experimental set-up where appropriate 

· Summarize the data generated with tables, figures and descriptive text
· Do not include raw data
· Explain and describe your data and the patterns, trends, and relationships observed
· The written text should deal fully with results, not merely refer to tables and figures
· Proceed from most general features of the data to more specific results
· Reference all tables and figures in the text and number them in the order in which they appear in the text
· Write so that the figures and tables are not the subject of your sentences (e.g. write “Growth rate was higher in the control (Fig. 1)” rather than “Fig. 1 shows higher growth rate in the control”)
· Use graphics to display data in preference to tables whenever feasible
· Use legends and clear, concise, descriptive titles for tables and figures
· Ensure all axes of graphs are labeled and that units are identified in all tables and figures
· The results section should be free of interpretation of data 

Discussion and Conclusions

· This section should include an interpretation and evaluation of the results
· Compare with other studies and draw conclusions based on your findings
· Refer back to the original hypotheses you were testing
· Draw positive conclusions wherever possible
· Identify sources of error and any inadequacies of your techniques
· Speculate on the broader meanings of the conclusions drawn
· Address any future study that your research suggests 

References Cited

· List all the references cited in the text
· Cite references in text by author(s) and date
· If there are three or more authors of a reference abbreviate by first author surname followed by “et al.”  (e.g. “Smith et al. (1995) state that...”)
· All references should be listed in full, alphabetically by first author in the Reference Cited section
· Be consistent with format
· Only use references pertinent to your study and your data 

General Comments

· Use and evaluate all the data you report and do not be discouraged if your results differ from published studies or from what you expected
· Justify all tables and figures by discussing their content and labeling them clearly
· Be creative in your presentation of data, your analysis, and your interpretation of data - play around with different variations before completing your report
· Do not force conclusions from your data or fudge data by omitting that which does not support pre-conceived conclusions
· Make sure all calculations and analyses are relevant to the hypotheses you are testing and the overall objectives of the study
· Justify your ideas and conclusions with data, facts, and background literature and with sound reasoning
· Ensure to keep the different sections of the report discrete, i.e. methods in the methods section, results in the results section, and leave discussion and interpretation of those results for the discussion section
· Plan your writing:  organize your thoughts and data, and sketch the report before actually writing.  This will help maximize your time efficiency and lead to a concise, well structured report

Credit to : http://www.columbia.edu/itc/cerc/seeu/dr/report_writing.html

For More Tips :
1)  How To Write A Great Report: 7 Tips To Make Your Next Report Stand Out
2) How to Write a Report
Secondly ,




· Use the following framework for your reports:  Title, Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion and Conclusions, Reference Cited
· Use double spacing and 12 or 14 point font
· Left justify all text 

 Here are the main sections of the standard report writing format:
  • Title Section - If the report is short, the front cover can include any information that you feel is necessary including the author(s) and the date prepared. In a longer report, you may want to include a table of contents and a definitions of terms.
  • Summary - There needs to be a summary of the major points, conclusions, and recommendations. It needs to be short as it is a general overview of the report. Some people will read the summary and only skim the report, so make sure you include all the relevant information. It would be best to write this last so you will include everything, even the points that might be added at the last minute.
  • Introduction - The first page of the report needs to have an introduction.  You will explain the problem and show the reader why the report is being made. You need to give a definition of terms if you did not include these in the title section, and explain how the details of the report are arranged. 
  • Body - This is the main section of the report. The previous sections needed to be written in plain English, but this section can include jargon from your industry. There needs to be several sections, with each having a subtitle.  Information is usually arranged in order of importance with the most important information coming first. If you wish, a “Discussion” section can be included at the end of the Body to go over your findings and their significance.
  • Conclusion - This is where everything comes together. Keep this section free of jargon as most people will read the Summary and Conclusion.      
  • Recommendations - This is what needs to be done. In plain English, explain your recommendations, putting them in order of priority.
  • Appendices - This includes information that the experts in the field will read. It has all the technical details that support your conclusions.
This report writing format will make it easier for the reader to find what he is looking for. Remember to write all the sections in plain English, except for the Body. Also remember that the information needs to be organized logically with the most important information coming first.  

credit to : http://grammar.yourdictionary.com/style-and-usage/report-writing-format.html


Students usually write their thesis in one file for each chapter whereas writing a whole thesis in one file gives more benefits, as follows:

1.Chapter numbers can be sequentially generated using numbered headings method. See: How to create numbered headings

2. Page numbers can be inserted for all pages. If the last number of a chapter page is change, you don't need to manually update the page number of next chapter.

3. You can refer to numbered items, figures, tables or equations from different chapters.

4. A bibliography generated by EndNote will be automatically placed after your last chapter. See: Tutorial vedios on EndNote

5. References which are cited more than once in paragraphs will be listed in the bibliography once.

6. A table of contents and list of figures/tables can be instantly generated (only if you write the document using numbered headings and captions). See: How to create numbered headings

7. You can see the document map or navigation pane of all contents.

credit to : http://gayaukm.blogspot.com/search/label/Gaya%20UKM

Last but not least ,


Language Analysis:

To make words and phrases more formal you can:
  • replace phrasal verbs with one-word verbs; e.g. 'take a look at' with 'investigate'
  • replace general verbs with specific ones; e.g. 'got' with 'received', although the specific verb should correlate with the noun; e.g. 'draw conclusions' and 'make recommendations' (Click here for more information.)
  • replace extreme adjectives with less extreme ones; e.g. 'huge' with 'large'
  • replace informal quantifiers with formal ones; e.g. 'masses of ' with 'a large amount of '
  • replace words with apostrophes with full forms; e.g. 'don't' with 'do not'

credit to : http://www2.elc.polyu.edu.hk/cill/eiw/reportformality.htm#answer

Good tips on Language :

1) https://www.dlsweb.rmit.edu.au/lsu../content/2_AssessmentTasks/assess_tuts/lang_reports_LL/index.html
2) http://unilearning.uow.edu.au/report/1d.html

good luck to me and friends for writing our final report T.T

Hope this entry will help and give some benefits to me and all of you :)
Wish you have a good report ! ^^

bye ...


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